Quick review of important concepts asked in the UPSC exams.
Local Government is a government of the local people. Being located nearest to the local people, local government institutions are under constant observation of the society. The Government of India has empowered the institutions by 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts 1992, so that they may work for the welfare of the local people in a more effective manner.
Constitution is a legal document which determines the structure of the government and direction to which society is to move on. A democratic constitution represents consensus among the people on certain rules, principles, procedures and ideals and guides the social and political institutions.
Anti-Colonial Movement gave rise to a feeling of Nationalism. In 1885 Indian National Congress was founded by A.O. Hume. There were phases of Naram Dal and Garam Dal. The Partition of Bengal in 1905 gave rise to a strong national movement. The Non Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience and finally Quit India Movement resulted in Independence of India and of course its partition.
Exploitation of natural and human resources by British led to rise of Popular Resistance Movements mainly by Peasants, Tribals and Sainiks. The most important Popular Resistance to the British rule during the 19th century was the revolt of 1857. There was a sense of self confidence that gave an impact to National Awakening.
In the first half of 19th century, the Indian society was backward due lack of education and subordination of women. This prevented society’s progress. Many reformers came up during this period who contributed to religious and social awakening helped in transforming the society for betterment.
Industrial Revolution brought social and economic changes that transformed the agricultural society to a modern industrial society. The industrialised nations needed raw materials for their industries as well as markets for their finished good. The necessitiated colonization of under developed countries.
With the decline of feudalism, the restrictions on peasants become a thing of the past simultaneously, the period witnessed the rise of powerful merchant class, which financed discoveries of new lands. These, with other factors, brought about the Industrial revolution which led a sea change throughout the world. This was the begining of the Modern Age.
Page 2 of 2