Physiography of India

India is the seventh largest country of the world. It extends from the state of Jammu and Kashmir in the North to the state of Tamil Nadu in the South; from the state of Arunachal Pradesh in the east to the state of Gujarat in the west.

Location and Extent

Latitudinal extent of Indian mainland is 8°4′ to 37°6′ North. Longitudinal extent of Indian mainland is 68°7′ to 97°25′ East. North - South extent is 3214 km. East - West extent is 2933 km.

India accounts for 2.42% of the total land area of the world. India lies entirely in the Northern hemisphere and Eastern hemisphere. The tropic of cancer (23°30′ N latitude) passes through almost the centre of the country. The Indian Standard Meridian (82°30′ E longitude) passes almost from the middle of the country.

India is surrounded by water from three sides - Arabian Sea (West), Bay of Bengal (East) and Indian Ocean (South). Kannya Kumari is the southern most (8°4′N latitude) point of Indian Mainland.

Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep are the important islands which are located in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea respectively.

Physical Divisions of India

  1. Northern Mountain
  2. Peninsular Plateau
  3. Coastal Plain
  4. Northern Plain
  5. Desert
  6. Islands